Upgrade modules follow a static progression. The generation seed is used for all module families at the same time. During module installations it goes up by one. The new module they change into correlates to their order of installation. If the game is reloaded, the exact same pool will be offered to the player, no matter the order they install other modules.
Example: If an S-class module had 200 ly Hyperdrive Range bonus on the third installation no matter in what order the former modules are installed or their class, if the same S-class module is used third again, it will once again be the 200 ly bonus module even if the name changes. Only if used second or fourth the module stat may change.